PEP Pedagogy:

CRITICAL TEACHING and LEARNING

By Allyson Tintiangco-Cubales

Pedagogy: The ART of TEACHING and LEARNING. Philosophies of Education. Pedagogy includes the purpose, content, and methods in the process of teaching and learning. Most deliberately, critical pedagogy aims to challenge oppression by developing a transformative education to pursue freedom. The purpose, content, and methods in the process of teaching and learning are carefully crafted to insure the goal of liberation. Critical pedagogy is also about praxis. Praxis is theory + practice + reflection.

Art:
1. The conscious production or arrangement of sounds, colors, forms, movements, or other elements in a manner that affects the sense of beauty, specifically the production of the beautiful in any form.
2. A system of principles and methods employed in the performance of a form.
3. A trade or craft that applies a system of principles, methods, and strategies.
- American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2000

Teaching:
Imparting knowledge, skills, and strategies.
Learning has an integral role in teaching.
Teaching is a performative act. Pedagogy should be transgressive.
- bell hooks, Teaching to Transgress

Learning:
To gain knowledge, experience, understanding, and/or perspective. Both students and teachers learn in PEPagogy. This also means that there is faith and hope that all students and teachers can learn from each other.

Spheres of Learning/Intelligence Emphasized in PEP

MIND-Cognitive=Mind, Knowledge
-thought process -mind -consciousness -awareness -intellect

BODY-Physical=External Reaction
-skills -smiling -crying -laughing –silence –dancing –singing -verbal response -awake

SOUL-Emotional=Feelings
-anger -pride –inspiration –sympathy –sadness -happiness-touched –attachment
-connected –spiritual -can relate to what you are saying -personal experience

Problem-Posing Pedagogy: Paulo Freire and The Pedagogy of the Oppressed


The nexus of Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1970) is the notion of critical pedagogy through the development of problem-posing education, which is directly opposed to the banking model of schooling which is based on teachers “depositing” information into minds of students. To challenge the banking method, problem-posing education creates spaces for students and teachers to work together to develop a critical understanding of the problems in their world, including finding ways to pursue decolonization, freedom, and liberation. Ethnic Studies classrooms, including Asian American Studies offers ideal settings where Freire’s critical pedagogy should be practiced. Particularly important to our work is Freire’s development of praxis which is the process that combines theory, practice, and reflection. Jeffery Duncan-Andrade and Ernest Morrell (2008) have developed Feire’s process of praxis to “encourage students to become social agents, developing their capacity to confront real-world problems that face them and their community.” (25) This cyclical process that has five stages,

1. Identify a problem.
2. Analyze a problem.
3. Create a plan of action to address the problem.
4. Implement the plan of action.
5. Analyze and evaluate the action.

(Excerpt from OPEN THE LIGHT: PERFORMING FILIPINA/O AMERICAN LITERATURE by Allyson Tintiangco-Cubales, 2008)

The Critical Circular Exchange Model:


• Teacher poses a problem to the student that has the potential for personal application
• Student takes the problem and figures out how to solve it
• Teacher and Students work together to find multiple solutions
• Dialogue and interaction are key in this pedagogy
• Rather than unilateral or “banking” information in the students minds, it is more of a circular exchange