A General Timeline of Filipina/o American History

Compiled by Dawn Bohulano Mabalon, Ph.D.


Borah, Eloisa Gomez. Chronology of Filipinos in America Pre-1898. (1997-2004) http://personal.anderson.ucla.edu/eloisa.borah/chronology.pdf (accessed June 20, 2006).
Buchholdt, Thelma, et al. Filipino American History Timeline found at http://www.fanhs17.com/timeline.htm (accessed July 14, 2006).
Choy, Catherine Ceniza. Empire of Care: Nursing and Migration in Filipino American History. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2003.
Cordova, Fred. Filipinos: Forgotten Asian Americans. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall Publishing Co., 1983.
Festival of Philippine Arts and Culture, Los Angeles. 2000 Calendar, Kaugnay: Interconnectedness.
Filipino American History Timeline: http://www.csus.edu/aas/filipinos/timeline.htm (accessed June 10, 2006).
Gaerlan, Barbara S. "The Movement in the United States to Oppose Martial Law in the Philippines, 1972–1991: An Overview," Pilipinas 33 (Fall 1999): 75–98.
History of Los Angeles, http://www.laalmanac.com/history/hi03c.htm (accessed July 17, 2006).
Kim, Hyung-chan and Cynthia C. Mejia, eds. The Filipinos in America, 1898-1974: A Chronology and Fact Book. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1976.
Los-Indios-Bravos.com: The Filipino Solidarity Project Timeline. <http://www.los-indios-bravos.com> (accessed August 27, 2006).
Operation Manong. <http://opmanong.ssc.hawaii.edu/filipino/sakada.html (accessed June 17, 2006).


March 16, 1521
Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan “discovers” the Philippines and claims the islands for Spain.

April 27, 1521
Lapu-Lapu defeats and kills Magellan in the Battle of Mactan.

September 16, 1559
Ruy Lopez de Villalobos names the islands “Filipinas” in honor of King Philip of Spain.

June 21, 1569
Miguel Lopez de Legazpi becomes the first Spanish Governor General of the Philippines.

The extremely lucrative Manila Galleon Trade brought products from Asia to Europe in exchange for New World silver. Ships sailed between Manila and Acapulco, bringing porcelain, ivory, spices and silk from China and Southeast Asia to Mexico, where products were then brought overland to be shipped to Spain. Ships were built in the Philippines with indigenous labor, using Philippine wood, and Indio labor was used extensively on the ships.

October 18, 1587
Seven “Luzones Indios,” or natives of Luzon, land on Morro Bay on the Central California Coast. They are slaves on a Spanish Galleon.

September 22, 1762
British invade the Philippines.

Filipinos jump ship around New Orleans and establish communities in the bayous of Louisiana. Lafcadio Hearn’s article about the Manila Men at St. Malo is published in Harper’s Weekly on March 31, 1883.

August 10, 1779
Father Junipero Serra conferred the Sacrament of Confirmation upon Vicente Tallado, a Filipino from Pampanga, Philippines, at Mission Monterey, California.

Filipinas/os Antonio Miranda Rodriguez of Sonora, 50, and his daughter, Juana Maria, 11, were chosen to be among the founding settlers of Los Angeles. While in Baja California, the two fell ill and were delayed. Upon their arrival to Alta California, Rodriguez’s skills as a gunsmith were needed elsewhere, and he was reassigned to Santa Barbara in 1782, where he died and was buried.

June 5, the Eleanora (captained by Simon Metcalfe) with 24 "Manilla men" and the Fair American (captained by Thomas Metcalfe) with 5 "Manilla men" sailed from China for the Pacific Northwest coast of America.

"Manila Men" comprised the majority of miners at Tulitos, one of the earliest gold mining camps in Mariposa County during the California Gold Rush.

June 19, 1861
Jose Rizal is born.

In what would be later called the Cavite Mutiny, more than 200 Filipino troops and workers are crushed by Spanish troops. The Spanish colonial government cracks down on the nascent nationalist movement. Three Filipino priests (Jose Burgos, Jacinto Zamora, and Mariano Gomez) are executed and become among the first martyrs of the Philippine Revolution. Ironically, the nationalist movement continues to grow in spite, and as a result, of harsh Spanish repression.

Jose Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere is published. In 1891, he publishes El Filibusterismo.

January 17, 1891
Pablo Manlapit born in Lipa, Batangas.

August 23, 1896
The Cry of Pugadlawin, which signals the beginning of the Philippine Revolution. The Katipunan, led by Andres Bonifacio, revolts against Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines.

December 30, 1896
Jose Rizal executed by Spanish firing squad. December 30 is celebrated as Rizal Day in the Philippines and by Filipinas/os in the United States.

May 10, 1897
Andres Bonifacio, leader of the Magdiwa faction of the Katipunan is found guilty of treason by an opposing faction of the Katipunan (the Aguinaldo-led Magdalo party) and is executed.

April 26, 1898
Formal declaration of the Spanish-American War.

May 1, 1898
Admiral George Dewey sails to the Philippines and engages the Spanish fleet in the Mock Battle of Manila Bay, in which Spain stages a loss to American forces in order to save face. The following day, the American flag is raised over the Philippines.

June 12, 1898
Emilio Aguinaldo, first president of the Philippine Republic, declares Philippine Independence in Malolos.

November 19, 1898
U.S. Anti-Imperialist league announces support of Filipino revolutionaries.

December 10, 1898
The Treaty of Paris is signed, and Spain cedes the Philippines to the United States for $20 million.

January 5, 1899
General Harrison Gray Otis proclaims American sovereignty in the Philippines.

January 23, 1899
Inauguration of the Philippine Republic, the first constitutional democracy in Asia.

February 4, 1899
Philippine-American War begins when Willie Grayson, a private from Nebraska, shoots at Filipinos at San Juan Del Monte Bridge.

February 6, 1899
U.S. Senate votes for the annexation of the Philippines by military force.

Philippine-American War (called the Philippine Insurrection in most American history books) in which Filipinas/os resist American colonial rule throughout the Philippines. American troops committed terrible atrocities against the Filipino people. Approximately one million Filipinas/os died during the war.

March 15, 1900
In accordance with the Treaty of Paris, Spain leaves the Philippines, ending almost 300 years of colonial rule.

March 23, 1901
Emilio Aguinaldo is captured by U.S. forces.

June 21, 1901
William Howard Taft becomes first American Governor General of the Philippines.

August 23, 1901
600 American teachers arrive in the Philippines aboard the U.S.S. Thomas.

October 23, 1901
U.S. General Jacob Smith orders his troops to kill everyone over the age of 10 and to make Samar a “howling wilderness.” More than 20,000 Filipinos are killed.

January 4, 1902
“Philippine Insurrection” declared officially over by the United States government.

November 3, 1903
The first 100 pensionadas/os arrive in California. Approximately 209 American-government sponsored Filipina/o students called pensionadas/os travel to the United States to attend universities. The majority return to the Philippines to teach and take government posts. Though thousands of self-supporting Filipina/o immigrants follow these students to the United States to attend colleges and universities, most do not complete their educations because of low wages and discrimination.

April 30, 1904
Indigenous Filipinas/os exhibited at the St. Louis World’s Far, 1904.

December 25, 1904
Philip Vera Cruz is born.

April 1, 1905
Filipino Student’s Magazine publishes its first issue in Berkeley, California.

March 9, 1906
American soldiers massacre more than 900 Filipino Muslims at Mt. Dajo, Mindanao.

September, 1906
Filipino Students’ Convention held at Cobb Hall, University of Chicago. Several students organize the Knights of Rizal.

December 20, 1906
Fifteen Filipino laborers arrive on Oahu, marking the beginning of massive Filipina/o immigration to the United States. They are recruited by the Hawaiian Sugar Planter’s Association. The following year, 210 arrive.

More than 100,000 Filipinas/os, mostly single men (though about ten percent were women), immigrate to Hawaii, Alaska and the mainland. Filipinos in Alaska call themselves “Alaskeros,” in Hawai’I, they call themselves “Sakadas.” Some have grade school and even college educations, though most come from poor areas in the Visayas and the Ilocos regions. With the Great Depression lowering wages and with working conditions terrible, Pinoys and Pinays struggled to build communities, raise families, send money home to the Philippines and maintain dignity in the face of rampant racism and discrimination. Stockton, Los Angeles, San Francisco and Seattle became large gathering points for Filipinas/os. The gender imbalance, at 14 Pinoys to 1 Pinay through the 1920s and 1930s, made marriage and family difficult, if not impossible, for many Filipinos.

The American colonial government establishes the first nursing school in the Philippines. This school sparked the creation of other institutions and laid the foundation for what would become a mass migration of Filipina nurses to the United States and around the globe throughout the 20th and early 21st centuries. Most of these nurses began arriving in the United States after 1965, when a nursing shortage and reformed immigration laws facilitated their immigration.

According to the U.S. Census, 246 Filipinos are residing in Alaska. From the 1920s to the 1980s, Filipinas/os were a significant part of the labor force in Alaskan salmon canneries.

November 24, 1911
Carlos Bulosan is born in Pangasinan.

June 15, 1913
Battle of Bud Bagsak, Mindanao, marks the end of the Philippine-American War.

October 25, 1913
Larry Dulay Itliong is born in San Nicolas, Pangasinan.

Filipino students at the University of the Pacific in Stockton, California begin working in asparagus in the nearby San Joaquin Delta.

Approximately 5,693 Filipinas/os are living in the United States, with 3,300 in California.

January 19, 1920
Pablo Manlapit leads the first major pan-Asian strike in Hawaii, on the island of O’ahu. Filipinas/os and Japanese participate. The strike lasts for two months.

January 22, 1921
• The Philippine Independent News, the first Filipina/o American newspaper in the United States, is published in Salinas, California.

• The Caballeros De Dimas-Alang, a fraternal organization, is established in San Francisco.

The Filipino Student Bulletin uses the term “Pinay” to refer to a woman of Filipino descent in the United States.

June 18, 1923
Pancho Villa wins the World Flyweight Boxing Title.

February 2, 1924
• The Legionarios del Trabajo, a fraternal organization based in Manila, establishes its first American lodge in San Francisco.

• Ti Silaw (The Light) is published in English and Ilocano in Honolulu.

Pablo Manlapit leads another strike in Hawai’i, which consists of mostly Filipinas/os working on four islands. The strike, which lasted approximately six to eight months, led to increasing violence against Filipinas/os; sixteen Filipino strikers were shot and killed by police in Hanapepe on the island of Kaua’i. Manlapit is jailed and deported. Filipinas/os who participated in the strike are blacklisted by many employers, which lead to the immigration of many families and single men to the mainland.

May 25, 1925
In Toyota vs. U.S., Supreme Court rules that Filipinos, except those who have served in the Navy for three years, cannot become naturalized citizens.

December 27, 1925
Filipino Federation of America founded in Los Angeles by Hilario Camino Moncado.

The American Federation of Labor (AFL) adopts a resolution urging Congress to bar Filipino immigrants from entering the United States.

November 8, 1927
Anti-Filipino riot in Wapato, Washington.

• Filipino workers driven out of the Yakima Valley, Washington.
• Filipino Christian Fellowship founded in Los Angeles, Calif.

June 9, 1928
Pedro Flores establishes the Yo-Yo Manufacturing Co. in Santa Barbara, Calif.

• Filipinas/os in Juneau, Alaska, organize the first Filipino community organization. Several other Filipina/o organizations follow in subsequent decades.
• Mga Anak ng Bukid, (Children of the Farm), a mutual aid organization and nascent farm labor union, founded in Stockton, Calif.

April 15, 1929
A Filipino hospital, the Amistad Oriental Hospital, the first in the nation, opens in Stockton. It is opened by Dr. A. F. Amistad, a Filipino physician.

October 24, 1929
Anti-Filipino riot in Exeter, California.

• Approximately 45,208 Filipinas/os are living in the United States, with approximately 30,000 living in California.
• Filipino Community of Stockton and Vicinity, Inc. founded in Stockton, Calif.

January 22, 1930
Anti-Filipino rioting in Watsonville results in the shooting death of Fermin Tobera.

January 29, 1930
Two white men bomb the Filipino Federation building in Stockton, Calif.

January 26, 1930
L.A. Superior Court judge rules that Filipino/White marriages performed since 1921 are invalid.

1932 Salvador Roldan Case
Anti-miscegenation laws in many states, including California, prohibited marriage between whites and “Mongolians,” “Negroes,” and “Indians.” Pointing out that the law specified “Mongolians” and that did not include Filipinos, who were “Malay,” Salvador Roldan sued the State of California and won -- temporarily. Lawmakers simply added “Malay” to the law.

December 8, 1930
A Filipino rooming house in the Imperial Valley, California is bombed by a white man. Three Filipinos are injured and one is killed.

January 27, 1933
Filipino labor contractors of the Salinas Valley met at the camp of Rufo Canete on the Chualar stretch of highway near Salinas. They vote to incorporate as the Filipino Labor Supply Association of Monterey County. On Feb. 27, they oppose a wage reduction attempt of the Salinas Valley Vegetable Growers’ Association.

June 19, 1933
Cannery Workers’ and Farm Laborers’ Union founded in Seattle, Washington.

December 10, 1933
Filipino Labor Union founded in Salinas Valley, Calif.

March 24, 1934
Tydings-McDuffie Act is passed. The law promises independence for the Philippines in 10 years, changes the status of Filipinas/os in the United States from “national” to “alien,” and restricts Filipina/o immigration to the United States to 50 per year.

August 27, 1934
Filipino Labor Union organizes the Salinas Lettuce Strike.

September 10, 1934
Anti-Filipina/o riots in the San Joaquin Valley, California.

July 10, 1935
President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Filipino Repatriation Act. The U.S. government invites all Filipinos to take an all-expense paid boat trip back to the Philippines, with the condition that those who leave can never return. Only about 2,100 returned.

December 1, 1936
Virgil Duyungan, founder and president of Seattle’s Canner Workers and Farm Laborers Union, and Aurelio Simon, union secretary, are murdered by a labor contractor’s agent in Washington.

March 24, 1938
First National Filipino Conference, Sacramento, California.

October 2, 1938
Ceferino Garcia wins the World Middleweight Boxing title.

April, 1939
Seven thousand Filipino asparagus workers, organized as the Filipino Agricultural Laborer’s Association (FALA), strike successfully during the height of the asparagus season in Stockton, Calif.

The AFL charters the FALA, now known as the Federated Agricultural Laborer’s Association, in Stockton.

June 10, 1941
Resident Commissioner Francisco Varona, instrumental in organizing Filipino labor and Filipina/o American communities, dies suddenly of a cerebral hemmorhage in New York.

December 7, 1941
Japan bombs Pearl Harbor.

December 9, 1941
Japan invades Northern Luzon.

December 20, 1941
Congress passes Public Law 360, which allows Filipinos to serve in the Army of the United States.

World War II
Hundreds of Filipinos in America joined the segregated units in the US Army to fight the Japanese in the Philippines; they formed the First and Second Filipino Infantry Regiments and were naturalized. Thousands of Filipinos in the Philippines joined the United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE), but are still fighting for recognition and benefits.

January 2, 1942
Manila falls to Japan.

April 1, 1942
First Filipino Infantry Battalion activated at San Luis Obispo, California.

April 3, 1942
Japanese attack Bataan.

April 4-13, 1942
Bataan Death March, in which Japanese soldiers march Filipino and American soldiers inland in Luzon. Thousands die.

July 13, 1942
First Filipino Infantry Regiment activated in Salinas, California.

January 13, 1945 and January 16, 1945
Liberation of Cavite City (13) and Corregidor and Bataan (16) from Japan.

March 18, 1945
Liberation of Panay from Japan.

August 15, 1945
Japan surrenders, ending World War II.

December 28, 1945
War Brides Act allows veterans to bring wives and children to the U.S. Filipino Americans who were members of the First and Second Infantry Regiments take advantage of the act and bring over families they created during the war.

A postwar labor shortage caused by war casualties and lucrative defense work led to Hawaii’s request for exemption from the 100-per-year immigration quota for Filipinas/os. Around 6,000 men, 446 women, and 915 children came as sakadas in 1946 before the granting of Philippine independence on July 4, 1946. This batch, called Sakada ‘46, were more educated than earlier recruits, and they immigrated as family units.

January 18, 1946
79th Congress passes Rescission Act, which denies benefits to Filipino veterans of USAFFE. In March, President Truman would sign the act, which transferred $200,000,000 for the pay of veterans of USAFFE, but would bar these veterans from most benefits under the G.I. Bill of Rights.

March 10, 1946
Carlos Bulosan’s semi-autobiographical novel, America Is In the Heart, is published.

July 2, 1946
The Luce-Cellar Act (also called the Filipino Naturalization Act), enabled Filipina/o immigrants to become naturalized citizens. Filipino quota adjusted to 100 annually. As veterans brought back war brides from the Philippines, communities experienced tremendous growth.

July 4, 1946
The United States recognizes Philippine independence, ending almost five decades of American rule.

March 14, 1947
Signing of the U.S. Military Bases agreement, which allowed 22 U.S. military bases in the Philippines. It also allowed the U.S. Navy to recruit Philippine citizens, who, after a number of years in the Navy, are allowed to naturalize. Filipina/o Navy families begin settling in such cities as San Diego, Alameda, Vallejo, Seattle, Charleston, Virginia Beach, and in Hawai’i.

August 7, 1948
Victoria Manalo Draves, Filipina American diver from San Francisco, is the first woman to win two gold medals in the same Olympics, in London.

Local 7 leads a major, but unsuccessful, asparagus strike in Stockton, California. Organizers and participants include Larry Itliong, Philip Vera Cruz, Carlos Bulosan, and Claro Candelario.

1950s-1990s: Urban “Renewal” destroys Little Manilas and Manilatowns
From the 1950s to the 1990s, urban renewal and freeway projects lead to evictions, demolitions and displacements in Filipina/o American communities in Stockton’s Little Manila, San Francisco’s Manilatown, and in the Little Manila and Temple districts of Los Angeles.

1952, McCarran-Walter Act
The act abolished the racial provisions of the 1790 Naturalization Act and allows immigrants of all racial groups to naturalize. However, the act, which was written at the height of anti-Communist sentiment, red-baited leftists, labor union activists and progressives, and allowed for the harassment and deportation of radical Filipino labor leaders.

September 11, 1956
Carlos Bulosan dies in Seattle, Washington.

Dorothy and Fred Cordova found Filipino Youth Activities in Seattle, Washington, a social service agency for youth. In 1959, they found the FYA Khordobah, an award-winning Filipino American drill team still in existence today.

August 30, 1961
First issue of the Philippine News published by Alex Esclamado. The paper becomes the longest-running Filipino American newspaper.

Ferdinand Marcos is elected president of the Philippines.

Johnson-Reed Immigration Act of 1965
Racial and national origins preferences abolished and immigration laws radically changed, with the Philippines allowed a 20,000 annual quota. By the 1980s, the Philippines and Mexico sent more immigrants to the U.S. than any other countries. In the first decades after the passage of the act, women constituted more than 2/3 of the documented immigrants from all countries. Immigration preferences favor educated professionals and artists (such as doctors, nurses and engineers), but family reunification and chain migration brings thousands of Filipinas/os of all class and regional backgrounds to the United States.

September 5, 1965
Agricultural Worker’s Organizing Committee (AWOC), led by Larry Itliong, calls a strike against 33 grape growers near Delano, California.

September 8, 1965
The 2,000 mostly Filipina/o members of the AWOC begin the famous Delano Grape Strike.

September 16, 1965
Cesar Chavez’s National Farm Worker’s Association joins the AWOC.

Escalated phase of the Vietnam War.

The Agricultural Worker’s Organizing Committee and the National Farm Worker’s Union form the United Farm Workers Union -AFL/CIO (UFW). Cesar Chavez is elected president, and Larry Itliong and Philip Vera Cruz are elected vice presidents. Pete Velasco becomes treasurer.

Filipino students at San Francisco State organize the Pilipino American Collegiate Endeavor (PACE).

September 6, 1968
Filipina/o students in PACE, members of the Third World Liberation Front (TWLF), play a large role in the Third World Strike at San Francisco State College. The demands of the students include an open admissions policy and the establishment of the College of Ethnic Studies. In 1969, Filipina/o students go on strike at UC Berkeley to demand ethnic studies. The College of Ethnic Studies and the Department of Asian American Studies is established in the fall of 1969.

December 26, 1968
The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) is founded.

The Filipino Student Association is founded at University of California, Berkeley. The organization is later renamed the Pilipino American Alliance, joins the Third World Liberation Front and organizes protests for the establishment of Ethnic Studies at UC Berkeley.

March 29, 1969
The New People’s Army (NPA) founded.

January 30, 1970
First Quarter Storm (anti-Marcos protests in the Philippines from January-March). Anti-U.S./Anti-Marcos movement begins.

May 8, 1970
Marion Lacadia Obera becomes first Filipino judge in the United States (in California).

July 29, 1970
Delano growers sign labor contracts with the United Farm Workers Union.

June, 1971
First issue of Kalayaan newspaper, published by the Kalayaan collective of Filipino activists in the Bay Area, which led to the creation of the KDP in 1973. Publication ushers in era of the formation of Filipina/o collectives and left groups in San Jose, New York, San Diego, Seattle and other cities and college campuses.

September 3, 1971
Hundreds of young Pinays and Pinoys gather in Seattle for the First Filipino People’s Far West Convention in Seattle. Subsequent conventions are held in Stockton (1972), San Francisco (1973), and Los Angeles (1974). The Far West Conventions continued annually until 1975. Panelists include labor organizers, political activists, artists, and educators. Issues discussed included the Filipina/o American labor movement, identity, politics, art, culture, and the Filipino American movement.

August, 1972
The Filipino Center is dedicated in Stockton, California. The dedication coincides with the Second Pilipino People’s Far West Convention, hosted by activists in that city. The Center is a low-income housing and retail center developed by the Associated Filipino Organizations to house displaced Filipina/o pioneers, many of them now senior citizens, and ethnic businesses. The Barrio Fiesta, which celebrated the opening of the Center, is celebrated annually to this day.

September 21, 1972
Dictator Ferdinand Marcos declares martial law in the Philippines, sparking a massive protest movement among Filipinos in the United States and in the Philippines. Thousands flee the Philippines, seeking political freedom. The United States maintains staunch support for the Marcos dictatorship.

September 23, 1972
The National Committee for the Restoration of Civil Liberties (NCRCLP) founded in San Francisco.

• SIPA, Search to Involve Pilipino Americans, founded in Los Angeles.
• Samahang Pilipino founded at UCLA.

• Filipinos for Affirmative Action founded in Oakland, Calif.
• Ferdinand Marcos announces the creation of the Balikbayan program, which invited all overseas Filipinas/os to return to the Philippines to visit. The program is criticized as a pro-Marcos propaganda ploy, but several hundred Filipina/o Americans return.

July 28, 1973
Katipunan ng Demokratikong Pilipino (KDP), or Union of Democratic Filipinos, founded in Santa Cruz, California. It formally disbanded in 1987. Anti-Marcos organizations founded in the fall of that year include the Movement for a Free Philippines (Sept. 22, 1973 in Washington, DC) and the Friends of the Filipino People (October 20, 1973, Philadelphia, Penn.)

May 18, 1973
Marcos Blacklist of U.S. residents is revealed in Los Angeles.

December 28-29, 1974
First AMLM (Anti-Martial Law Movement) Unity Conference in Chicago, Ill.

Liwanag, a collection of Filipino American art, photography, fiction and poetry is published in San Francisco. The book is representative of the radical and passionate work produced by young Filipino American artists in California in the 1970s. Many formed the Kearny Street Writers Workshop and made music in bands like Dakila and drum groups like Ating Tao. Pioneering Filipino American writers such as Jessica Hagedorn, Al Robles, Jeff Tagami, Jaime Jacinto, Virginia Cerenio, Oscar Penaranda and Shirley Ancheta, among many, many others, emerge from this region and period.

January 1, 1975
Eduardo Malapit, first Filipino American mayor, takes office in Kaua’i. The first mainland Filipino American mayor, Apolinar Sangalang of Lathrop, Calif., takes office in 1990.

November 2, 1975
Anti-Martial Law Coalition formed in New York City.

August 4, 1977
Amidst massive protests, tenants of the International Hotel in San Francisco are evicted and the building is soon demolished, leaving hundreds of single and aging Filipino and Chinese men homeless.

• Filipinas/os fast becoming the nation’s largest Asian American group and the largest Asian American group in California as a result of immigration laws since 1965.
• The Anti-Martial Law Movement politicizes and polarizes the Filipino American community. Moreover, ideological rifts plague the movement itself.
• Filipina/o American hometown, regional, political, social, religious and professional organizations flourish as the post-1965 population mushrooms.
• Suburban, Midwest, East Coast and Southern settlement of immigrants and Filipina/o Americans in such places as Daly City, Calif., Union City/Fremont, Calif., New Jersey, Chicago, and Virginia.
• New immigrants swell the older communities of Stockton, San Francisco, Seattle, Salinas, Watsonville, Los Angeles, Sacramento, Vallejo, and Chicago.
• Filipino American youth play important roles in early hip hop culture, particularly through DJ culture and dance.
• Problems persist, among them continuing racism and occupational downgrading, U.S. support of the Marcos dictatorship, a lack of national exposure and recognition, little political clout, dismal rates of high school and college admission and completion, and disproportionately high rates of teen pregnancy, teen suicide, and AIDS.

June 1, 1981
Gene Viernes and Silme Domingo, labor activists and KDP members, are murdered by Marcos agents in their union hall in Seattle.

November 26, 1982
Filipino American National Historical Society established in Seattle, Washington. Fred and Dorothy Cordova’s landmark book Filipinos: Forgotten Asian Americans is published in 1983. The Society promotes October as Filipino American History Month, which commemorates the arrival of Luzon Indios in California in October, 1587.

National Democratic Front representatives from the Philippines are sent to the United States.

August 21, 1983
Senator and opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. is assassinated at the Manila airport upon his return to the Philippines.

November 3, 1985
On American television, Ferdinand Marcos announces a “snap election” for the presidency, to be held January 17, 1986. The date is postponed to February 7.

The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) grants amnesty to undocumented immigrants, including thousands of Filipinas/os.

February 22, 1986
The People Power “EDSA” movement, supported by a military coup, topples Marcos’ regime and elects Corazon Aquino president of the Philippines, sparking another wave of immigration to the U.S.

February 25, 1986
President Ronald Reagn formally withdraws his support of the Marcos administration, and Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos leave the Philippines for Hawaii.

• KDP officially disbands.
• The National Pinoy Archives established by the Filipino American National Historical Society in Seattle, Washington. The Archives is the world’s largest collection of Filipina/o American historical and cultural materials.

• A San Diego study finds that Filipino girls have the highest rate of suicide and unwanted pregnancy among Asian ethnic groups.
• Filipinas/os have the highest rate of AIDS among Asian Americans.
• Filipinos eventually have the lowest admission rate of any ethnic group in the UC system, and few Filipino American professors have tenure nationwide.
• Filipina/o undergraduates at colleges and universities nationwide rally for the hiring and tenure of Filipino American professors, Filipino American Studies courses, higher admissions and retention for Filipina/o college students, and ethnic studies courses.
• Youth Activists create summer camps and programs to develop Filipina/o American youth leadership in Sacramento and at Stanford University (i.e., Project Pull).
• Pilipino Youth Coalitions created in Northern California cities.
• Daly City, Milpitas, Stockton, Vallejo, Union City and Carson elect Filipino American city officials.
• Clothing companies Downright Pinoy, Pinay, and Tribal Pinoy are established in Los Angeles in the mid-1990s.
• Mark Pulido is the first Filipino elected student body president at UCLA.
• The San Francisco Bay Area’s Represent and L.A.’s Our Path to Follow poetry/spoken word events bring Filipino American poets and performance artists to wide audiences.
• The digital media revolution and the internet allows Filipina/o Americans to produce, publish and disseminate their own books, magazines, zines, CDs, independent films and documentaries and create their own independent record companies, film production companies, and music festivals. In the 1990s, The Rocksteady Crew -- djs Q-bert, Apollo and Mixmaster Mike -- win the DMC World Championship three years in a row. Their crew, the Invisibl Skratch Picklz, continue to dominate and influence turntable jazz and hip hop culture in general. The Beat Junkies form in L.A in the 1990s.
• Because of the explosion of Filipina/o American arts, the era of the mid 1990s to the early 2000s is dubbed by some scholars and artists as the Filipino American cultural renaissance.
• National Filipino American organizations such as the Filipino Civil Rights Advocates (FilCRA), the National Federation of Filipino American Associations (NAFFAA), and the Filipina Women’s Network (FWN) are established.
• Filipino Veterans and advocates, including such groups as the Veteran’s Equity Center in San Francisco, the American Coalition for Filipino Veterans and other national organizations, continue the campaign for Filipino World War II veteran’s benefits to well into the 2000s.
• Millions of Filipinas/os have left the Philippines to find work worldwide. The remittances of these overseas workers constitute a large portion of the Philippine economy.

• The Immigration Act of 1990 allows family reunification for those given amnesty in 1986. The Act also allows more than 150,000 Filipino veterans of World War II to immigrate to the United States. Approximately 20,000 become citizens.
• maganda (UC Berkeley) begins publication and links its origins to the original Filipino Student’s Bulletin published in Berkeley in 1905.

September 16, 1991
The Philippine Senate rejects a proposed treaty for U.S. bases.

April 11, 1992
FIND, Filipino Intercollegiate Networking Dialogue, is founded as a networking organization amongst East Coast college-age Filipinas/os.

May, 1992
• Publisher Mona Lisa Yuchengco launches Filipinas magazine.
• First Festival of Philippine Arts and Culture in Los Angeles.

April 24, 1993
A “Reaffirm/Reject” split emerges in the National Democratic Front in Europe.

The Pilipino American Reading Room (PARRAL), now the Filipino American Library, established in Los Angeles.

California voters pass Proposition 209, which abolishes race, ethnicity and gender preferences in admissions, hiring and contracting for public institutions.
• Byron Achido and Alex Tizon of the Seattle Times win the Pulitzer Prize for Journalism.
• Filipino veterans create Equity Village in Macarthur Park in Los Angeles to publicize their campaign for benefits. Several veterans go on a hunger strike.

December 5, 1994
Benjamin Cayetano, descendent of sakadas, elected governor of Hawaii.

May 5, 1998
Filipino Christian Church designated a Historic Cultural Monument by the City of Los Angeles.

Bindlestiff Studio becomes an important San Francisco Bay Area center for Filipina/o American arts and performance.

The piNoisepop Music Festival brings together Filipina/o American bands and musicians from around the nation for an annual performance festival in San Francisco.

January 11, 1999
Library of Congress changes subject heading “Philippine Insurrection” to “Philippine-American War.”

August 10, 1999
Joseph Ileto, Filipino American postal worker, killed by white supremacist Buford Furrow.

• Rod Pulido’s Flipside is the first Filipino American feature film to debut at the Sundance Film Festival.
• Gene Cajayon and John Castro’s feature film tribute to 1990s Filipino American youth culture, The Debut, opens in theaters nationwide.
• Angela Perez Baraquio of Hawai’i crowned Miss America.
• Pin@y Educational Partnerships founded at San Francisco State University by Allyson Tintiangco-Cubales.

September 11, 2001
In coordinated suicide attacks planned by Islamist fundamentalist group al-Qaeda, planes are hijacked and crashed into the Pentagon, the World Trade Center in New York, and into a field in Pennsylvania. Because almost 3,000 die in the attacks, many Americans react with shock and distress; moreover, the attacks represent the first terrorist attacks on American soil. In reaction, President Bush declares a War on Terror. The xenophobic atmosphere post-9/11 fuels an atmosphere of extreme racism, backlash, violence, and suspicion. In the weeks after the attacks, hundreds of Filipina/o airport workers, many of them permanent residents, are laid off when the newly formed Transportation Security Administration overhauls airport security and replaces immigrant laborers with citizens. Anti-Muslim, anti-Arab, and anti-South Asian sentiment and violence increase dramatically after the attacks. Americans witness an erosion of civil liberties (The Patriot Act). The Immigration and Naturalization Service, now housed in the newly formed Department of Homeland Security, increases deportations and harassment of political dissidents and radicals, Arab Americans, Muslims, South Asians, and Filipinas/os. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and her administration become staunch allies of the Bush Administration in the War on Terror, and American troops are sent to the Southern Philippines, ostensibly for the purpose of “training” Philippine troops.

June, 2002
The Filipino Community Center is dedicated in Waipahu, Hawai’i.

October, 2002
Stockton City Council designates the Little Manila Historic Site, the nation’s first Filipino American city-designated historic site.

The city of Los Angeles designates Historic Filipinotown.

March 19, 2003
President Bush declares war on Iraq.

The Filipino Community Center and the Bayanihan Center open in San Francisco.

The new International Hotel is dedicated and the Manilatown Center on its ground floor is dedicated and opened.

Protesters in the United States and the Philippines call for the resignation of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, citing suspicions over her role in rigging the 2004 Presidential election, her role in the War on Terror, her poor human rights record and her crackdown on political dissent and protest. Demonstrations without permits are stopped.

February 24-March 3, 2006
In response to an alleged coup attempt, President Macapagal-Arroyo declares Proclamation No. 1017, in which she declares a State of Emergency for the nation. Critics charge that the proclamation is tantamount to a declaration of martial law. Demonstrations are dispersed and a crackdown on leftist political leaders ensues.

May, 2006
In a report, Amnesty International expresses concern over the murders of militant activists and community workers in the Philippines.